There are two methods of training which are as: 

  1. On the job methods 
  2. Off the job methods 


1.1 On the Job Training:  

It is the responsibility of supervisors and managers to utilize available resources to train, qualify, and develop their employees. On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities. Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those organizations that employ a sound OJT program. An analysis of the major job requirements (identified in the position description and performance plan) and related knowledge’s, skills, and abilities form the basis for setting up an OJT plan. To be most effective, an OJT plan should include: 

  • The subject to be covered; 
  • Number of hours; 
  • Estimated completion date; and 
  • Method by which the training will be evaluated 

To have a successful OJT program, supervisors need to assign a coach to each employee involved in OJT. It is the responsibility of the coach to plan training carefully and conduct it effectively. Various on the job training method include: I. Job Instruction Training (JIT):

Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a logical outgrowth of Job Hazard Analysis. It is a proven technique for teaching new skills and safe, healthful work habits faster and more effectively. All new employees and those transferred to new jobs should receive JIT. One of the first steps is trainer selection – preferably a supervisor or a skilled person within the department. 

Regardless of who is selected, the trainer should:

  • Know the job in question thoroughly
  • Have leadership skills
  • Have a desire to teach others
  • Be friendly and cooperative
  • Have a professional attitude toward the job and other employees 

1.2 Vestibule Training (Training Centre):

In the early 1800s, factory schools were created, due to the industrial revolution, in which workers were trained in classrooms within the factory walls. The apprentice system was inadequate due to the number of learners that had to be trained as the machines of the Industrial Revolution increased the ability of the factory to produce goods. The factory owners needed trained workers quickly because there was a large demand for the produced goods. 

Towards the end of the 1800s, a method that combined the benefits of the classroom with the benefits of on-the-job training, called vestibule training, became a popular form of training. The classroom was located as close as conditions allowed to the department for which the workers were being trained. It was furnished with the same machines as used in production. There were normally six to ten workers per trainer, who were skilled workers or supervisors from the company.

1.3 Simulation Training: 

Technical companies that are required to train employees on dangerous or expensive equipment are most likely to benefit from simulation-based training. Simulations allow the user to observe the impact of their choices without the outcomes having any impact on the real operation. Trainees can learn how to respond to emergencies, how individual actions and decisions affect entire processes, and how to operate complex pieces of equipment.


Figure 1. Simulated Airplane cockpit.

Training method example simulated airplance cockpit


The airplane cockpit simulation takes on a new approach to simulation training. The user can observe how all the components of the cockpit work together. This approach allows the user to gain a perspective of the interactions and correlations between the numerous components contained in an airplane cockpit.

Training methods example


1.3.1. Demonstration and examples: 

This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. As an example, trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. In order to be more effective, demonstration method should be should be accompanied by the discussion or lecture method.

To carry out an effective demonstration, a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules, easily learned parts. Then, the trainer sequentially organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why that part is required. While performing the demonstration, trainer. 

  • Demonstrates the task by describing how to do, while doing.
  • Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task.
  • Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be showing them.
  • Explains why it should be carried out in that way. 

The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of involvement of the trainee. In the lecture method, the more the trainee is involved, the more learning will occur.

The financial costs that occur in the demonstration method are as follows:

  • Cost of training facility for the program
  • Cost of materials that facilitate training 
  • Food, travel, lodging for the trainees and the trainers
  • Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees
  • Cost related to creating content, material
  • Cost related to the organization of the training

After completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback, both positive and or negative, give the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing and why. 

1.3.2. Apprenticeship: 

A major part of training time is spent on the on the job productive work. Each apprenticeship is given a programme of assignments according to predetermined schedules which provides for efficient training in trade skills. This method is appropriate for training in crafts, trades, and technical areas, especially when proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long training or apprenticeship period, e.g.; job of a crafts man, a printer, a tool maker, and a mechanic. Etc.


2.1. Lecturers (or class room instructions) : 

Lectures are regarding as one of the simplest ways of imparting knowledge to the trainees, especially when facts, or principles, attitudes, theories and problem solving abilities are to be taught. Lectures are formal organized talks by the training specialist, the formal superior or other individual specific topics.

The lecture method can be used for very large groups which are to be trained within a short time, thus reducing the cost per trainee. Lectures are essential when it is a question of imparting technical or special information of a complex nature.

2.2. Conference Method:

The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions. 

Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture, panel, and seminar) to keep sessions interesting. 

Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager‟s ideas, causing conflict. 

2.3. Seminar: 

Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures, discussions, conferences, demonstrations. 

Pros: Group members are involved in the training. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity. 

Cons: Planning is time-consuming. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods

2.4. Role Playing: 

During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training. 

Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. 

Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. In some role play situations, only a few people get to practice while others watch.

2.5. T Group:

T- Group Training is a technique of off the job training methods. It is a group experience designed to provide maximum opportunity for the individuals to expose their behavior, give and take feedback and experience new behavior and develop awareness about self and others. The t- group training is also known as several names such as sensitivity training, action training, human capacity movement, group dynamics, and awareness expertise and as forth. 

This training involves development techniques to attempt to increase or improve human sensitivity and awareness. The goal of this training is to helping trainees to improve and participate in human affairs. The T-group training enables trainee to understand themselves and others, changed their attitude towards self, others and groups role, increase their interpersonal skills and provide organizational improvement as groups rather than individuals.

In this training, the numbers of trainees should be limited to 10 to 15 persons so that regular interaction could happen throughout the training programme. Usually there is no leader, no planned agenda and stated goal. The trainees can be given any assignment like case study, role play etc that leads the group interaction. The participants would be encouraged to be thoughtful and understanding towards the feeling of others.  The trainees should feel secure to express their personal feeling and reactions to what happening in the group and understand the others behavior and feelings. The emphasis is on face to face interaction.  

Merits of T-group training

1. The trainee learn more about themselves, specially their weakness and emotions

2. They understand that how they react to others and how others react to them

3. They discover how the groups work and identify human relation problems

4. Find out how to behave more effectively in inter-personal relationship and manage people through means rather than power.

5. Developed more capable and genuine relations in which feelings are expressed openly.

6. Confront interpersonal problems directly to find out solution instead of  avoiding them. 

After training, trainees usually become more sensitive to others and open. Such training can also result in improved performance and increased company‟s profit.

The demerits T-group training 

1. During the training, the trainer often create stressful situation. In such situation, the training may do a job of tearing apart people instead of  bringing them together.

2. The changes trainees acquire during the training are tend to face out when trainee returns to c insensitive environment of workplace.

3. This training may make the management trainee as sensitive towards others that they become unwilling to take necessary hard decisions. 

4. T group training proved less effective when it is applied ob technical professional.

5. Such training may make people frustrated and upset as many stressful situations are created during this technique.

Some basic points to implement the T group training:

1. T-group training is more suitable for develop “organic” Organization. If such openness and flexible organizational structure is not available, this training is not appropriate.

2. The participants should be selected on the basis of their emotional stability and anxiety tolerance

3. The participation should be strictly voluntary

4. The trainees should know in advance that what sort of training they are going to receive

5. The transfer of learning back to the Organization should be ensured.

6. In-Basket Method:

In-Basket Technique:

It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages, and reports, which would be handled by manger, engineer, reporting officer & administrator. 

Procedure of the In-basket Technique:

- In this technique, trainee is given some information about the role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general context about the role.

- The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular time period. 

- After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the trainer takes place. 

- In this discussion the trainee describes the justification for the decisions. 

- The trainer then provides feedback, reinforcing decisions made suitably or encouraging the trainee to increase alternatives for those made unsuitably. 

A variation on the technique is to run multiple, simultaneous in-baskets in which each trainee receives a different but organized set of information. It is important that trainees must communicate with each other to accumulate the entire information required to make a suitable decision.

This technique focuses on:

- Building decision making skills

- Assess and develops Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSAs)

- Develops of communication and interpersonal skills

- Develops procedural knowledge

- Develops strategic knowledge

In Basket Technique


2.7. Incident Method: 

This method was developed by Paul Pigors. It aims to develop the trainee in the areas of intellectual ability, practical judgment and social awareness. Under this method each employee developed in a group process .Incidents are prepared on the basis of actual situations which happened in different organizations. Each Employee in the training group is asked to study the incident and to make short term decisions in the role of a person who has to cope with the incident in the actual situation. Later, the group studies and discusses the incident and takes decisions relating to incident, based on the group interaction and decisions taken by each member . Thus, this method is similar to a combination of case method and in basket method.

2.8. Syndicate Method:

Syndicate is a group of individuals or organizations combined or making a joint effort to undertake some specific duty or carry out specific transactions or negotiations. It is not actually one group that constitutes the components of syndicate method.

This method is suitable for learning at a higher level. Therefore, this method was experimented, found useful and widely used in teaching- learning situations, especially in top level management training.

human resource management

December 30, 2017