Scientific research includes a systematized procedure that emphases on being objective and gathering a multitude of information for analysis so that the researcher can come to a conclusion. This procedure is used in all research and evaluation projects, irrespective of the research technique. The procedure focuses on testing ideas in a park and regeneration setting through a systematic procedure. In this procedure, the study is recognized in such a mode that another individual can conduct the similar study again. This is referred to as duplicating the study. Any research done without documenting the study so that others can review the procedure and consequences is not an investigation using the scientific research procedure. The scientific research procedure is a multiple-step procedure where the steps are interlinked with the other steps in the procedure. If deviations are made in one step of the procedure, the researcher or investigator must review all the other steps to guarantee that the changes are reflected throughout the procedure. Parks and recreation experts are often involved in conducting research or assessment projects within the activity. These experts need to recognize the eight steps of the research procedure as they apply to conducting a study.

We have supposed the research are conducted on childhood obesity, each step will explain about childhood obesity.

Step 1: Identify the Problem

The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some information that is wanted by the agency, or the want to identify a reformation trend nationwide. In the example, the problem that the action has identified is childhood obesity, which is a local problem and concern within the community. This serves as the focus of the study.

Step 2: Review the Literature

Now that the problem has been identified or recognized, the investigator or researcher must study more about the topic under investigation. To do this, the investigator must review the literature linked to the research problem. This step provides foundational information or knowledge about the problem zone. The review of literature also teaches the investigator about what studies have been conducted earlier, how these studies were conducted, and the conclusions in the problem zone. In the obesity study, the review of literature enables the systems analyst or programmer to determine horrifying statistics linked to the long-term effects of childhood obesity in terms of health matters, death rates, and projected medical costs. In addition, the systems analyst finds numerous articles and information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that label the benefits of walking 10 thousand steps a day. The information revealed during this step helps the systems analyst or programmer fully understand the magnitude of the problem, recognize the future consequences of obesity, and identify a strategy to combat obesity (i.e., walking).

Step 3: Clarify the Problem

Several times the primary problem identified in the first step of the process is too large in scope. In step 3rd of the process, the investigator clarifies the problem and narrows the scope of the study. This can only be done after the literature has been reviewed. The information gained through the review of literature guides the investigator in clarifying and narrowing the research project. In the example, the systems analyst has identified childhood obesity as the problem and the purpose of the study. This topic is very comprehensive and could be studied based on genetics, family environment, diet, exercise, self-confidence or health issues. All of these areas cannot be examined in a single study; so, the problem and purpose of the study must be more clearly defined. The systems analyst has decided that the purpose of the study is to determine if walking 10 thousand steps a day for 3 days a week will recover the individual’s health. This purpose is more narrowly focused and researchable than the original problem.

Step 4: Clearly Define Terms and Concepts

Terms & concepts are words used in the purpose statement of the study or else the description of the study. These things need to be precisely defined as they apply to the study. Terms or concepts often have different definitions dependent on who is understanding the study. To minimalize confusion about what the terms and phrases mean, the investigator must precisely define them for the study. In the obesity study, the concept of “individual’s health” can be well-defined in hundreds of ways, for example physical, emotional, or spiritual health. In this study, the individual’s health is defined as physical health. The idea of physical health may also be defined and measured in several ways. In this case, the systems analyst decides to more narrowly define “individual health” to refer to the zones of weight, percentage of body fat, and cholesterol. By defining the terms or concepts more narrowly, the scope of the study is more controllable for the systems analyst, making it easier to collect the essential data for the study. This also makes the concepts more understandable to the reader.

Step 5: Define the Population

Research projects focuses on a definite group of people, facilities, employee assessments, programs, financial status, marketing efforts, or the integration of technology into the operations. E.g. if an investigator wants to inspect a specific group of people in the community, the study could inspect a specific age group, males or females, people living in a definite geographic area, or a specific ethnic group. Literally thousands of choices are available to the investigator to specifically recognize the group to study. The research problem and the purpose of the study assist the investigator in identifying the group to involve in the study. In research terms, the group to involve in the study is always called the population. Defining the population assists the investigator in numerous ways. Firstly, it narrows the scope of the study from a very large population to one that is controllable. Secondly, the population identifies the group that the investigator’s efforts will be focused on within the study. This helps ensure that the investigator stays on the correct path during the study. Lastly, by defining the population, the researcher identifies the group that the results will apply to at the conclusion of the study. In our example, the systems analyst has identified the population of the study as children ages 10 to 13 years. This narrower population makes the study more manageable and controllable in terms of time and resources.

Step 6: Develop the Instrumentation Plan

The plan for the study is referred to as the instrumentation plan. The instrumentation plan helps as the road map for the whole study, requiring who will participate in the study; how, when, and where data will be collected; and the content of the program. In the obesity study, the investigator has decided to have the children take part in a walking program for 6 months. The group of contributors is called the sample, which is a smaller group selected from the population specified for the study. The study cannot probably include every 10- to 13-year-old child in the community, so a smaller group is used to represent the population. The investigator develops the plan for the walking program, demonstrating what data will be collected, when and how the data be collected, who collect the data, and how the data be analyzed. The instrumentation plan specifies all the steps that must be finalized for the study. This confirms that the systems analyst has carefully thought through all these decisions and that she provides a step-by-step plan to be tracked in the study.

Step 7: Collect Data

Once the instrumentation plan is finished, the authentic study begins with the collection of data. The collection of data is a critical step in providing the knowledge or information needed to answer the research question. Each study includes the collection of some type of data—whether it is from the literature or from subjects—to answer the research question. Data can be composed in the form of words on a survey, with a questionnaire, by observations, or from literature. In the obesity study, the systems analyst will be collecting data on the definite variables: weight, percentage of body fat, cholesterol levels, and the number of days the person walked a total of 10 thousand steps during the class.

The investigator collects these data at the starting session and at the closing session of the program. These two sets of data are essential to determine the effect of the walking program on weight, body fat, and cholesterol level. Once the data are composed on the variables, the investigator is ready to move to the last step of the process that is data analysis.

Step 8: Analyze the Data

Constantly, effort and resources dedicated to steps one through seven of the research process conclude in this last step. The investigator lastly has data to analyze so that the research question can be answered. In the instrumentation plan, the investigator stated how the data will be analyzed. The investigator now analyzes the data according to the plan. The consequences of this analysis are then revised and summarized in a way directly linked to the research questions. In the obesity study, the investigator relates the measurements of weight, percentage of body fat, and cholesterol that were taken at the 1st meeting of the topics to the measurements of the same variables at the final program session. These two sets of data will be analyzed to determine if there was a difference between the 1st measurement and the 2nd measurement for each individual in the program. Then, the data will be analyzed to determine if the variances are statistically significant. If the variances are statistically significant, the study authenticates the theory that was the focus of the study. The consequences of the study also provide valuable information about one strategy to combat childhood obesity in the community.

As you have possibly concluded, conducting studies using the 8 steps of the scientific research procedure requires you to dedicate time and effort to the planning procedure. You cannot conduct a study using the scientific research process when time is limited.

Investigators who do this conduct studies that outcome in either false conclusions or conclusions that are not of any value to the association.

business research methods

February 03, 2017