Operant Conditioning

This theory of operant conditioning was given by B.F skinner. Operant conditioning is also known as Instrumental Conditioning. It is the type of learning in which a subject is rewarded when he or she makes a desired response. His or her behavior is strengthened by reinforcement and weakens by the punishment.

Main Factors of Operant Conditioning

Its main factors are:

  1. Reinforcement
  2. Punishment

1. Reinforcement

It is used to increase the frequency or probability of a behavior to occur again.

1.1 Positive Reinforcement

When a subject is given a pleasant stimulus because he or she has made a desired response .

1.2 Negative Reinforcement

When an unpleasant stimulus is removed from  the subject after he made the desired response for example if he will complete his homework only then he can watch Tv.

2. Punishment

To reduce the frequency of the behavior to occur again.

2.1 Positive Punishment

When a subject makes an undesired response he is introduced to an unpleasant stimulus. For example For example candy before dinner is a bad thing so it should be avoided.

2.2 Negative punishment

A type of punishment in which a  pleasant stimulus is removed from the subject when he makes an undesired response For example mobile will be taken from him if he showed bad result.

Schedule of Reinforcement

Fixed Ratio

A behavior is rewarded after specific numbers of occurrences.

Variable Ratio

A behavior is rewarded after variable number of occurrences.

Fixed Interval

A behavior is reinforcing after specific amount of time.

Variable Interval

A behavior is reinforce after variable amount of time.

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December 19, 2018