Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

GSM stands for Global system for mobile communication. It is a digital server technology. GSM is used for transmitting mobile voice and data resources. It uses narrow TDMA, time division multiple access techniques for transmitting signals. A call takes turn 1, 2, 3, 4, 5…... the voice is converted into digital data channels.


AMPS advance mobile phone system was used before GSM, which is used to be called 1G as well, Whereas GSM is called as 2G because GSM was develop while using digital technology. GSM is a 2G standard employing TDMA spectrum. Which was issued by ETSI European telecom standard institute. 3G and 4G are the higher generation techniques which is used to transmit mobile voice and data services. These are the faster, secure and reliable.

3G and 4G nowadays are normally used as GSM, CDMA (code division multiple Access) where several transmitters can send info simultaneously over a single communication channel. CDMA is normally used in U.S where the popular the popular brands are US cellular, sprint Verizon where as their GSM frequencies are 900/1800 MHz Which are used in Europe, Asia, and Africa and as well as in middle east. Whereas GSM 850/1900 MHz frequency is used in US Canada and Mexico.


GPRS (general packet radio service) commonly called as 2.5 G. It’s a packet based wireless communication service with a data weight of 56 to 114. Kilo bytes per second theoretically not practically with a continuous connection availability and it’s used for MMS and WAP wireless application protocol.


BSS stands for base station sub system. It is controlled by base station controller BSC and BSC are connected with the BTS which have the capability to transmit and receive signal.


SIM stands for Subscriber Identification module. The end user has a smart card, which have the ability to identify the user and stored information into SIM.


The cell is that area around BTS with in which data can be transmit and received and their sizes vary maximum up to 35 to 40 km.  Single BSC can control up to 100 BTS. A BSC is connected to MSC.

Mobile Switching Centre

Mobile switching centre maintains the record of amount of prepaid and postpaid, mobility and MMS etc on a real time money deduction basis.


MSE has connection with a PSTN which stands for Public switching telephone network.

Public Switching Telephone Network

This in case of Pakistan connects your signals to PTCL. The PSTN is a worldwide collection of inter connected, voice oriented public telephone networks owned both by government and private sector.

Internet on Mobile

With BSC is a connected a module PCU packet control unit in which internet is connected through packets switching. PCU is connected to GPRS it receives packets from internet and convert them into signals and sends them to mobile. So GPRS hands the packets. GPRS is connected to GGSN which is the interface of the GPRS on the internet. It is a main component of GPRS network which is responsible for internet connection between GPRS network and a external packet switching network.

management information system

December 19, 2018